A Beginner’s Guide To Artificial Intelligence & Its Key Concepts


By : Biztech

A Beginner’s Guide To Artificial Intelligence & Its Key Concepts1


Artificial Intelligence or AI – is amongst a few terms that have surfaced repeatedly in various parts and phases of our lives. From personalized eCommerce product recommendations to AI-guided customer support, Artificial Intelligence is everywhere; revolutionizing every sector.

We can see many applications of Artificial Intelligence and machine learning from the voice assistants we use to the improved maps and navigation. While some of us are aware of the concepts of AI, most of us aren’t.

And if you are an entrepreneur, developer, or simply an AI enthusiast – you just can’t do without this information. This guide should help you get familiar with the various concepts of AI, its benefits, challenges, and prospects.

What is Artificial Intelligence? Fundamentals To Know

Artificial Intelligence refers to the science of making machines learn or simulate human behavior. With AI tools, machines can think like humans and partake in decision-making and problem-solving.

To be exact, artificial intelligence is associated with the learning of machines to simulate human cognitive functions. Machines (or computers) learn how to simulate such behavior by processing heaps of data and undergoing supervised or unsupervised learning.

When studying artificial intelligence meaning, you will come across several unfamiliar terms. Let’s explore a few such terms in this context.

Key Concepts of Artificial Intelligence

Machine Learning: This branch of artificial intelligence states that machines can make decisions and identify patterns depending on the data they collect. It ensures machines can perform tasks even without receiving explicit information.

In machine learning, rules aren’t explicitly coded into the algorithm. Rather, the machine learning algorithms learn to simulate such behavior by analyzing large datasets.
Machine LearningTypes of machine learning:

  • Supervised Learning: In this type of learning, the ML algorithm is trained on labeled data. Based on the inputted data, the machine predicts outcomes which are then compared for accuracy with the actual outcomes.
  • Unsupervised Learning: The machine learning algorithm takes unlabeled data as input and tries to identify patterns and structures on its own.
  • Semi-Supervised Learning: Here, the input data is both labeled and unlabeled. But, the proportion of unlabeled data is significantly large.
  • Reinforcement Learning: In this type of machine learning, the machine learns by interacting with an environment, where it uses its own actions and experiences as feedback.

Machine learning Vs Deep Learning

Machine learning Vs Deep LearningDeep Learning: Deep learning utilizes multi-layered artificial neural networks to model complex patterns in data. It’s called “deep” because of the number of layers through which the data is transformed. It uses Neural Networks, algorithms modeled on the human brain, consisting of interconnected units (neurons) that process data in layers.

This subset of machine learning has multiple applications in image and speech recognition, autonomous vehicles, natural language processing, and medical diagnosis.

Cognitive Computing: This field of computer science enables the simulation of human cognitive functions through a machine. It enables machines to process and interpret complex data and simulate human thought processes and decision-making. Such systems are extremely useful in efficient and accurate decision-making, personalization, and improved decision-making.

Natural Language Processing: NLP involves the development of algorithms and systems that can read, decipher, understand, and make sense of human languages in a valuable way. There are multiple applications of Natural Language Processing. For example, sentiment analysis, language translation, text summarization, chatbots and virtual assistants, content recommendation systems, speech-to-text, and text-to-speech services.

Types of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence can be categorized in multiple ways –
I. Based on Capabilities

  • Weak AI: Weak or narrow AI can simulate human cognitive functions and perform specific tasks with intelligence. For instance, image recognition software, self-driving cars, speech recognition software, AI in games, chatbots, virtual assistants, etc.
  • General AI: Strong AI or Artificial general intelligence has extensive capabilities to solve problems it is not trained upon. Such AI tools can pretty much simulate human-like behavior without being trained on specific data sets, situations, or problems. However, such AI tools are still in theoretical research and don’t exist yet.
  • Super AI: It is a hypothetical and future AI concept where a machine’s capabilities can surpass the capabilities of humans. The outcome of general AI includes the capability to reason, think, puzzle, plan, learn, and solve problems.

II. Based on Functionalities

  • Reactive Machines: It is one of the most basic Artificial Intelligence solutions as it lack memory-based functionality and reacts to the world based on predefined algorithms. It doesn’t rely on its past experiences to make decisions and thus you get the same reaction to the same situation, every time.
    Examples: IBM’s Deep Blue (a chess-playing supercomputer), Google’s AlphaGo (Novel AI system mastering the game Go)
  • Limited Memory AI: Such AI systems are slightly more complex compared to Reactive machines as they possess the capability to learn from past experiences and make future decisions. These AI systems are built in a way so that machines can automatically learn and renew.
  • Theory of Mind: This AI type is still in the research stage and involves machines capable of understanding human emotions and making decisions based on them. Such types of AI applications can comprehend how machines, humans, or animals feel, and based on their emotions, fluctuation in emotions, and psychological ideas, they can learn to make decisions on their own.
  • Self-Aware AI: This is the most advanced stage of AI where it becomes self-aware. In this kind of AI, the machine gains human-level intelligence and consciousness where it can understand its own existence in the world. This form of AI is still not in existence.

While some of these kinds are put into use for AI development in various fields, many of these are still a theoretical concept and in the research phase. In the years to come, you shall see more development in this regard.

How Artificial Intelligence Works?

Now that we have talked about the way artificial intelligence works, it is time to understand how these AI tools learn to work. While we have already talked about machine learning and the various types of learning associated with it, here’s a step-by-step description of how AI tools learn.

Let’s explore the different ways!

1. Data Collection: Every AI system relies on data for learning. Data could be in the form of text, speech, image, or statistics.

2. Data Processing and Preparation: The collected data from step 1 has to be processed and prepared for further analysis. In this stage, any redundant or erroneous data is removed and necessary structuring or formatting is done.

3. Choose Algorithm: Artificial Intelligence applications work based on algorithms. So, you have to develop algorithms that instruct the AI tool to process data and make decisions. You will have to pick the algorithm based on the specific type of AI tools you are developing. You can use machine learning algorithms or neural networks, deep learning algorithms based on the complexity of your task.

4. Train AI Models: The Artificial Intelligence systems are trained on the data. The AI algorithm tries and adjust itself for greater accuracy in performing specific tasks.

5. Testing and Validation: To test and validate the AI tool, its performance is evaluated with an entirely different set of data which is not used for training. It helps ensure that the tool is capable of working equally well for any unique dataset.

6. Deployment: After the AI tool passes the testing phase, it is deployed for use in the real-time environment. Here, you have to keep a close eye on the performance and accuracy level of the AI tool when it works with new data.

7. Feedback and Iterative Improvement: AI systems learn over the course of time with feedback and improve their capabilities. The continuous learning helps it adapt to changing environments and new information.

Noteworthy Applications of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence has made significant strides in various sectors, revolutionizing how tasks are performed and services are delivered. Whether it is improvement in efficiency, productivity, or accuracy, AI tools can help in numerous ways.

Let’s look at the various areas AI has found its applications.


  • With AI algorithms in place, the diagnosis of diseases by analyzing medical imaging has become more efficient, fast, and accurate.
  • Healthcare institutions can significantly reduce the time and cost invested in the research and development of new treatments, therapies, and drugs.
  • AI tools help recommend personalized treatment plans based on a patient’s unique genetic composition and lifestyle.


  • One of the most widespread uses of AI in finance applications is with analysis and detection of fraudulent activities to secure your app.
  • Algorithmic trading can lead to speed and profitability.
  • Financial institutions can get a more accurate and elaborate report on a person’s credit history with a better AI-based credit model.


  • AI-driven product recommendations are quite popular nowadays and you may have seen it yourself. It is a great way for eCommerce companies to push their product sales, cross-sell, and upsell.
  • You attain a more streamlined supply chain with AI-guided inventory management.
  • If you are wondering how to use AI in mobile apps for retail, AI integrations at various touchpoints, and ERP, CRM implementation can be of much use.


  • Artificial intelligence is good for analyzing and predicting your machinery for any repair or maintenance. It helps reduce downtime and costs.
  • The inspection process can be automated with AI. You will be able to analyze and identify any potential defects or manufacturing problems with greater accuracy and save time and money.


  • AI can be beneficial for learning as students can transform study material to their unique style which helps accelerate the learning process.
  • Automation of various administrative tasks can also be a substantial benefit of AI.

Customer Service
AI-powered chatbots and virtual assistants can handle customer queries efficiently and give resolutions. More tricky problems can be solved by the support team. It reduces the cost of customer support and you can minimize wait time as your customers get instant support 24/7.

AI Generative Tools
With AI generative tools, you can create new and unique content, ideas, and patterns. The outputs can range from text and images to music and code. It can automate or assist in creative processes, helping individuals improve their productivity.

Examples of generative AI tools: Bard, ChatGPT, GitHub Copilot, Jasper, Chatsonic, Claude, Synthesia, etc.

Ethical Considerations in AI

Ethical Considerations in AI

As AI is rapidly becoming an indispensable part of our daily lives, several ethical questions are being raised by users. Thus, it is all the more important for businesses that leverage AI to handle it responsibly.

Here are some ethical considerations for you before you learn AI and machine learning and put it to use!

  • Bias and Fairness
    Since AI applications are trained on data, it may pick up any discrimination or unfair outcomes present in the data. Therefore, it is imperative to train the AI model on a diverse range of datasets.
  • Privacy
    To train an AI model, you have to input large amounts of data which often contain private and sensitive information. Thus, it is necessary to implement a strict data privacy policy and ensure the collected data is handled with more responsibility.
  • Transparency and Explainability
    Oftentimes, some AI systems with complexity operate in a way that’s not understandable by humans. These systems are trained with deep learning techniques which are difficult to understand. Companies working with such AI systems should be able to explain how the AI system works, thereby fostering a transparent environment.
  • Accountability and Responsibility
    There may be a lack of clear guidelines on who will be responsible and accountable for the decisions made by AI. Thus, establishing clear guidelines and legal frameworks becomes imperative.
  • Security
    There may be vulnerabilities in the AI system, leading to attacks and misuse. Thus, it is essential to implement robust security measures for your AI-guided system.
    Ethical considerations in AI are an ongoing discussion that needs to evolve with the technology. It requires collaboration among technologists, ethicists, policymakers, and other stakeholders to ensure AI develops in a way that is beneficial, fair, and ethical for all.
    As AI becomes more advanced, these ethical challenges will become more complex and will require thoughtful and proactive solutions. However, AI experts can devise sophisticated AI solutions that give you the assurance to take responsibility and manage these applications ethically.

Future of Artificial Intelligence: Conclusion

The future of AI is a topic of much speculation and excitement, as it holds tremendous potential to transform various aspects of our lives, industries, and societies. While some AI concepts are still present theoretically, some of these are practically feasible too.

In the days to come, you can expect these more complex AI algorithms and systems to become more sophisticated and accurate. But with their development, it is up to you to handle AI systems responsibly, maintaining the desired level of transparency and security.

Furthermore, you can avail of AI services to get expert help with the development and implementation of AI systems within your business processes. Looking for one such technical partner who can help with the integration of AI system? BiztechCS might be your single-stop solution with our zealous team of passionate AI enthusiasts.

Connect with the team for a consultation!

Last but not least, the future of AI is filled with unseen possibilities to be explored by scientists. Therefore, it is integral to keep ourselves updated with the latest of the industry. So, keep reading!

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